這個小工具發生錯誤

2014年5月23日 星期五

台灣歷史上的民變

台灣歷史上的民變 Popular uprisings in Taiwan's history林呈蓉教授/April C. J. Lin, Professor(淡江大學歷史系) (Department of History, Tamkang University) 2001-03-26 


One of the most important parts of an
The Pin Tien-mi guard incident of
1628, during the era of Dutch rule,
illustration courtesy of SMC Publishing
Inc.


伴隨著「唐山過台灣」,漢人也將傳統中
國社會所有的特質移植到了台灣島上,塑
造了台灣歷史「民變頻仍」的現象。「民
變頻仍」也充分顯示出長久以來台灣社會
一直是處在一種不安定的狀態當中。主要
導因於:公權力無法伸張,因此民眾必須
自立救助;多數時候台灣社會都是被外來
政權所統治,且政權的更迭頻仍,無法滿
足當地住民的真實需求;以及島內不同族
群必須經常面對激烈的生存競爭。本週請
到淡江大學歷史系林呈蓉教授執筆,談談
台灣在四百多年的歷史中,歷年來民變事
件的種類與導因。

In the wake of "China coming to Taiwan", Han
Chinese brought with them to Taiwan the
characteristics of traditional Chinese
society, and created the phenomenon in
Taiwanese history of frequent popular
uprisings. these frequent popular uprisings
also demonstrate that Taiwanese society had
been unstable for a long time. This happened
because there was no way to promote public
authority, and consequently, the general
population had to fend for themselves; most
of the time, Taiwanese society was ruled by
a government from overseas, and this
political power changed frequently, so it
was impossible to satisfy the practical
needs of the local inhabitants. Different
ethnic groups on the island often had to
face intense competition for survival. This
week, we have invited Professor April C. J.
Lin from the department of history at Tamkang
University to tell us about incidents of
popular rebellion through Taiwan's 400 years
and more of history, and the reasons behind
them.


民變頻仍

過去一般人對台灣歷史的刻板印象,就是
「民變頻仍」。以清王朝統治台灣兩百一
十一年的時期為例,各種大小反抗官府的
民變就有上百件之多,若再加上民間頻繁
的分類械鬥,顯然如俗諺所說的「三年一
小反,五年一大亂」,的確是其來有自。
然而,這樣的特質並非是台灣社會所特有
的,而是伴隨著「唐山過台灣」,漢人將
傳統中國社會的特質又移植至台灣島上罷
了。在台灣四百年的歷史中,民變的型態
以一九一五年為界,大致可以分為四大類
型:

Frequent popular uprisings

In the past, most people have had a stereotyped
image of Taiwan's history, which is "frequent
popular uprisings." During the 212 years of Qing
dynasty rule in Taiwan alone, there were over
100 incidents of large and small popular uprisings
revolting against local government offices, and if
we add to this the persistent armed fighting
between different ethnic groups, we can see that
the old saying, "a little uprising every three
years, major unrest every five years," was
certainly based in fact. However, this wasn't
traditionally characteristic of Taiwanese society;
rather, following the arrival of "China in Taiwan,"
Han Chinese brought the characteristics of their
traditional Chinese society with them when they
moved to the island of Taiwan. During Taiwan's
four hundred years and more of history, popular
uprisings can be roughly divided into four main
types, taking 1915 as a dividing line.


濃厚的民族意識色彩

(一)以漢族為中心,透過民族情緒的訴
求,動員民眾起來抵抗,表達對統治當局
的不滿。
這樣的案例,從一六五二年荷蘭時代,漢
人反抗荷蘭統治的「郭懷一事件」開始,
便層出不窮。較為有名的還有一七二一年
驚動整個西部地區的抵抗運動「朱一貴事
件」;一七八六年清朝時代最大規模的抵
抗行動「林爽文事件」,清廷花了四省的
兵力,歷時十六個月才彌平;一八六二年
席捲台灣中部、歷時四年,以八卦會會眾
為首的「戴潮春事件」。一八九五年清廷
將台灣割讓給日本,以仕紳階層為首的一
群欠缺「民主」概念的人士,竟以「台灣
民主國」為號召,試圖抵抗日本帝國的統
治,為期五個月;「民主國」事件失敗之
後,從一八九五年年底直至一九○二年期
間,以北部的簡太獅、中部的柯鐵虎、南
部的林少貓為首,打著「抗日」旗幟,在
各處進行遊擊行動。接著,從一九○七年
蔡清琳鼓勵新竹月眉社一帶住民,侵襲當
地日本人官憲與民間人之「北埔事件開始
」,一九○八年丁棚二十八宿事件、一九
一二年三月林杞埔的劉乾事件、同年六月
黃朝的土庫事件、一九一四年羅臭頭的六
甲事件、一九一五年二月台中的林老才事
件、乃至同年四月餘清芳的西來庵事件,
一連串的武裝抗爭行動,皆夾雜著強烈的
民族意識色彩。不僅如此,橫跨四個世紀
的這些反亂運動還有另一個共同特徵,即
多具有舊封建時代「易世革命」的特質,
事件的指導者皆企圖以新「皇帝」自居。 

Rich layers of national consciousness

(1) With Han Chinese at the core, the demands of
ethnic emotion mobilized the common people to
rise up and fight back, conveying their
dissatisfaction to the ruling authorities.
There were numerous cases of this kind, starting
with the Kue Huai-yit Incident in 1652, when Han
Chinese reacted against Dutch rule. An even more
well-known incident was the Chu Yit-gui Incident
of 1721, a resistance movement which shook the
entire western region. The largest resistance
action of the Qing dynasty was the Lin Song-bun
Incident of 1786, the Qing court used military
forces from four provinces, and it took 16 months
to restore peace. In 1862, the Dai Tiao-chun
Incident, led by members of the Eight Diagrams
Society, engulfed central Taiwan for four years.
In 1895, when the Qing court ceded Taiwan to
Japan, a group led by members of the gentry class,
who are normally perceived as lacking any concept
of democracy, unexpectedly appealed for a "Taiwan
Republic," and tried to rebel against Japanese
imperial rule. It lasted five months. After the
failure of the "Republic," from the end of 1895
until 1902, the flag of the "anti-Japanese"
movement was raised, spearheaded by Chien Tai-shih
in the north, Ke Tie-hu in the central region, and
Lim Siau-Niau in the south. The movement involved
launching surprise attacks all over the place, as
and when the opportunity arose. Then, from 1907,
Tsai Ching-lin encouraged residents in the area of
Yueh Mei She in Hsinchu to invade and attack local
Japanese officers and civilians in the Peipu
Incident. A long string of armed resistances,
including the Tingpeng Incident of 1908, the Lin
Kipo Liu Kan Incident of March 1912, and the Huang
Chao Tu Ku Incident in June the same year, the Luo
Chou Tou Liu Chia Incident of 1914, the Lin Lao
Tsai Incident in Taichung in February 1915, in
Taichung, and even in April 1915, Yu Ching-fong's
Seraian Incident, were all imbued with intense
national consciousness. Not only were these
incidents indicative of rich layers of national
consciousness, these rebellions and uprisings
which spanned four centuries had another common
trait, the quality of the old, feudal-era
"revolutions aiming to change the world," and the
leaders of these incidents all tried to pose as
new "emperors."


Yu Ching-fong's Seraian Incident of
1915, photo courtesy of SMC Publishing
Inc.


對異族勢力的反撲

(二)以原住民為中心,對異族勢力的反
撲。
早在荷蘭統治時期,台灣原住民便必須面
對異民族統治,以及與外來移民族群進行
生存競爭的雙重壓力。一六二九年新港社
之役、一六三五年麻豆社之役、同年的卡
拉陽社之役、一六三六年小琉球社之役、
一六四一年華武壟社之役、一六四四年淡
水.葛瑪蘭社之役、一六四五年塔卡瑪哈
社之役等,原住民的抗爭活動屢見不鮮。
明鄭時期,東寧王國的漢族政權對待原住
民並不比過去寬厚,原住民襲殺通事、搶
糧的事件時有耳聞,一六六一年大肚社之
役、一六七○年沙轆社之役、一六八二年
竹塹.新港社之役等,在在表現出原住民
對於外來統治與異族族群入侵的不滿。
到了清朝統治時期,移民台灣的漢族人口
日漸增加,多數原住民在反抗之餘,逐漸
走向歸化、漢化之途。即使如此,原住民
的反抗活動仍是層出不窮,例如一六六九
年吞霄社之役、同年北投社之役、一七三
一年大甲西社之役、一八七五年加禮宛社
之役、一八八八年大莊諸社之役、一八九
五年觀音山莊之役等。其中,規模最大的
一場抗官事件首推一七三一年大甲西社事
件。以大甲西社為中心,外加大肚社、沙
轆社、牛罵頭社、樸仔籬、吞霄社、阿里
史社等十餘社原住民兩千餘人,由於不堪
清廷官憲的剝削與漢族移民的侵墾,乃群
起反撲,整個動亂為期一年之後才告結束

到了日本統治時期,雖然日本有一套完備
的「理蕃政策」,可以有效地管理原住民
族的活動,但是在一九三○年十月仍有霧
社原住民,由於長久以來的勞役剝削與文
化摩擦,而爆發了震驚全島的「霧社事件
」,歷時將近兩個月才告平息。

Counterattack on the power of foreign races

(2) With Aboriginals at the core, counterattack
on the power of foreign races.
Early on in the Dutch occupation period, Taiwan's
Aboriginals had to face the two-fold pressure of
rule by a foreign race and competition for
survival with immigrants from overseas. Aboriginal
resistances were a common occurrence, and
examples include the Battle of Hsinkang She in
1629; the Battles of Ma Tau and Kalayang in 1635;
the Battle of Hsiao Liuchiu She in 1636; the Battle
of Hua Wu Lung She in 1641; the Battle of
Tamshui-Kemalan She in 1644; and the Battle of
Takamaha She in 1645. In the Ming-Cheng period,
the Han Chinese political regime of the Tong-ning
Kingdom treated Aboriginals no more tolerantly
than had the previous regime, and there were
frequent reports of Aboriginals attacking and
killing officials, and raiding grain storehouses.
Battles such as the Battle of Tatu She in 1661,
the battle of Shalu She in 1670, and
Chuchien-Hsinkang She in 1682 repeatedly showed
that the Aboriginals were dissatisfied with
foreign rule and invasion by foreign races.
With the arrival of the era of Qing rule, the
numbers of Han Chinese immigrating to Taiwan
increased by the day, and in addition to
rebellions, many Aboriginals gradually began to
assimilate into the Han culture. Even though
this was happening, Aboriginal uprisings still
came thick and fast, for instance the Battles
of Tunhsiao She and Peitou She n 1669, the Battle
of Tachiahsi She in 1731, the Battle of Chialiwan
She in 1875, the Battle of Tachuangchu She in
1888, and the Battle of Kuanyin Shan Chuang in
1895. Of these, the uprising on the largest scale
was the Tachiahsi Incident of 1731. With
Tachiahsi She as its center, but including a
dozen or more other Aboriginal communities such as
Tatu She, Shalu She, Niumatou She, Puzaili,
Tunhsiao She and Alishih She, they banded together
and launched a counterattack, because they
couldn't bear the rapaciousness of the Qing
officials and the encroachment of land by Han
Chinese immigrants. The unrest lasted for a year
before it could be concluded.
In the period of Japanese occupation, although
Japan had prepared a set of "Barbarian Management"
policies which could be used to effectively
control the activities of the Aboriginals, in
October 1930 there were still Aboriginals at
Busha (in Mandarin Chinese Wu She) who, having
been subject to a long period of forced labor and
cultural attrition, erupted in violence and shook
the whole island with the Busha Incident. It took
almost two months to quell the uprising.


分類械鬥

(三)漢族移民不同族群之間的「分類械
鬥」。台灣的幅員有限,伴隨著漢族移民
陸續渡台墾殖,移民之間為了爭奪土地、
水利資源,乃以透過姓氏、原鄉認同、職
業等淵源所結合而成的宗親會、同鄉會、
行郊等組織為後盾,來維護自身的權益。
在層出不窮的各類械鬥當中,則以一八六
○年西螺、二崙、崙背一帶所爆發的廖、
李、鍾三姓的械鬥最為嚴重,歷時三年才
被平息。分類械鬥發生時,在清朝統治時
期,清廷官憲多半不會馬上插手調停,直
到雙方人馬已經是兩敗俱傷時,官憲才會
出馬懲處事件的兩造當事人。
值得注意的是,在台灣割讓給日本之後,
台灣社會逐漸走向近代化、殖民化與法治
化,也進而凝聚出新的「台灣人」意識,
過去以原鄉情結為中心的「分類械鬥」問
題,乃自然而然地消失殆跡。

Armed fighting between different ethnic groups

(3) Armed fighting took place between Han Chinese
immigrants from different ethnic groups. Taiwan has
a limited area of land, and with Han Chinese
continuing to immigrate to Taiwan and cultivate and
reclaim the land, there was constant competition
between immigrants for land and water resources.
Therefore, the immigrants organized themselves
through identification in terms of family names,
hometowns and professions, and formed clanship
associations, shared hometown associations, guilds
and other organizations as support to protect
their own interests. Amongst the endless
inter-ethnic fighting, the most serious was the
armed fighting that broke out between the three
clans of Liao, Li and Chung in the area of Hsiluo,
Erlun, and Lunpei in 1860, which took three years
to contain. When inter-ethnic armed fights broke
out during the Qing dynasty, the Qing court's
officials usually would not intervene and patch
things up immediately, until both sides had caused
destruction to each other - only then could the
officials dispatch troops to administer justice to
the people responsible for the fighting on either
side.
It's worth noting after Taiwan was ceded to Japan,
Taiwanese society gradually moved towards
modernization, colonization and rule of law, and
a "Taiwanese" consciousness began to form. When
this happened, the previous problem of
inter-ethnic fighting which had been based on
hometown affiliations in the old country faded
away as a matter of course.


具備了近代民族運動的特質

(四)不同於前三種類型的民變,一九一
五年之後,伴隨日本統治時期在台灣辦理
近代化的國家教育,台灣的民變逐漸具備
了近代民族運動的特質。
以一九二一年所發展出且為期十四年之久
的「台灣議會設置請願運動」為例;一九
二五年二林地區蔗農自行組織「蔗農組合
」,而向製糖會社提出蔗農權益要求之案
例;或是一九三一年在「台灣民眾黨」第
四次黨員大會進行中,突然提出了「結社
禁止」令為例,雖然屢屢招致日本統治當
局以違反「治安警察法」、或在毫無法源
依據的情況下進行逮捕,甚至以妨礙社會
安寧為由強迫停止一切集會活動,但卻在
在顯示出台灣民眾一反過去的草莽行徑,
試圖在現行體制內爭取自身權益的決心。
這種蘊涵近代國家特質的社會活動,從一
九二○年開始直到一九三七年中日戰爭爆
發後必須終止一切組織活動為止,成為台
灣社會抵抗異民族統治的另一種新型式潮
流。

Characteristics of modern nationalist
movements

(4) Different from the first three types of
popular uprising, after 1915, following the
national education which was part of the
Japanese colonization era modernizations,
Taiwan's popular uprisings gradually began
to have the characteristics of a modern
nationalist movement. Take for example the
"Petition to Establish a Taiwan Parliament"
movement which started in 1921 and lasted 14
years; or the case in 1925, where sugarcane
growers in the Erlin area organized themselves
into the "Sugarcane Growers Association",
and brought their demands for rights for
sugarcane farmers to the Sugar Refining
Association; or in 1931, the fourth party
members' congress of the Taiwan People's Party
where an order was suddenly raised prohibiting
the organization. Although these activists were
time and again arrested by the Japanese ruling
authorities for violation of the "Peace Police
Law," or even without the slightest basis in
law, or were forced to stop all gatherings and
activities, under the charge of obstructing the
peace, they frequently demonstrated that the
people of Taiwan were trying to win the right
to determine their own rights and interests
within the existing system. This implies that
the social movements characteristic of modern
nations started around 1920, and continued
until all organization and activities had to
stop with the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war
in 1937. This fourth category was a new wave of
Taiwanese social resistance against rule by
foreigners. 


長期以來處於不安定的狀態中

縱觀台灣四百年的歷史發展,民變頻仍,
充分顯示出長久以來台灣社會一直是處在
一種不安定的狀態當中。而其不安定的根
源主要有三:第一、公權力經常無法有效
伸張,因此民眾必須自立救助;第二、多
數時候台灣社會都是被外來政權所統治,
且政權的更迭頻仍,無法滿足當地住民的
真實需求;第三、不同族群一起寄居在如
此蕞爾的小島上,族群之間必須經常面對
激烈的生存競爭。

A long history of instability

Taking a panoramic view of the last 400 years
of historical development, there have been
frequent popular uprisings, providing ample
evidence that for a very long time, Taiwan
society was constantly in a state of instability.
There have been three major sources of
instability: one, it has often been impossible
to extend public authority, and consequently
the people have been forced to stand up and
help themselves. Two, on many occasions, Taiwan
society has been ruled by regimes which came
from outside Taiwan, and these political powers
have changed frequently, so there has been no
way to satisfy the practical needs of the local
inhabitants. Three, when different ethnic groups
living together on a very small island such as
Taiwan, there are bound to be frequent intense
competitions for survival between the different
groups.


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